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With Arab/Muslim-Israeli relations newly redeemed through treaties and agreements, what follows?

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Egypt’s President Anwar Sadat brought the unimaginable into the realm of the possible by concluding a peace treaty with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin a peace treaty in 1979, under the watchful eye of US President Jimmy Carter. (Photo: Wikipedia Commons)

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History of Peace -Making in the Middle-East

After the three defeats inflicted by Israel on the Arab armies, in 1977 the notion of an Arab Head of State openly stating his wish and later declaring his intention to enter into peace negotiations with Israel was simply unimaginable in the Arab world.

Egypt’s President Anwar Sadat brought the unimaginable into the realm of the possible by defying Arab unanimity on this subject. He took the initiative to offer the Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin the opportunity to negotiate a peace treaty. Towards this Sadat visited him in Israel and made it a point to attend Yad Vashem. In 1979 after tough negotiations under the watchful eye of U.S President Jimmy Carter, the two men agreed on the final terms of a peace treaty and signed it in Washington.

In consideration of entering into the treaty and as part of it, President Carter rewarded Egypt with massive military aid which by the year 2000 reached around $38 billion and a yearly economic assistance exceeding $1 billion.

In 1987, a secret attempt at peacemaking between Shimon Peres, the Israeli Minister of Foreign Affairs and King Hussein of Jordan failed when the Israeli Prime Minister rejected the proposed terms.

In 1993, at the initiative of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, following secret negotiations, the first of the two Oslo Accords was signed in Washington between Israel and Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO). The first was followed by the second Accord signed in 1995. The Accords provide for the mutual recognition of the State of Israel by the PLO and the recognition of the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people and as the partner in negotiations by stages with the ultimate object of achieving peace and entering into a peace treaty. The Accords were met with fierce opposition by the Arab Palestinian population.

Right from the outset, the PLO and its subsequent creation the Palestinian Authority (P.A.) breached the terms of the accords by reneging on its fundamental undertakings by engaging in unprovoked violence followed by terrorism. In 2020, the P.A. repudiated the operational provisions of the accords only to resume them some months later. In the interim the P.A. rejected any and all offers and proposals for peace.

In 2007, two years after Israel as a gesture of goodwill towards peace; disengaged from the Gaza Peninsula; removed all its settlements and settlers and handed the territory to the P.A. the latter lost control of it to the Hamas terror group. In turn, over time, Hamas was joined by other terrorist groups. At present, there are altogether 14 of them operating out of the peninsula.

Following the signing of the first Oslo Accord in 1993, in 1994 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and his Minister of Foreign Affairs Shimon Peres approached Jordan’s King Hussein to inquire whether he would consider this development to provide the right time and opportunity to enter into a peace treaty.

Jordan was pressured by President Clinton to enter into peace negotiations which resulted in the signing of first, the Washington Declaration in 1994 followed the same year by the signing of the peace treaty in Israel.

As was the case with Egypt which was rewarded for making peace, President Clinton induced the King to enter into negotiations and sign a treaty by undertaking to forgive Jordan’s voluminous debts to the United States.

Enter President Trump

President Trump and his advisor Jarred Kushner are hailed as diplomatic aces who both initiated and managed to achieve what no other American President or for that matter head of state elsewhere managed to do; namely to inject into the Middle-East the optimistic notion that Arab/Muslim-Israeli relations can be redeemed through peace and normalisation treaties and agreements.

The United Arab Emirate was the first country to sign a treaty with Israel for the normalisation of their relations. The key immediate inducement for the UAE to enter into the treaty was the undertaking of the U.S to enable it to purchase advanced military equipment worth $23 billion including the F-35 aircraft which the Emirate was not permitted to purchase prior to the signing of the treaty.

In turn, the Kingdom of Bahrain chose not to enter into such a treaty. Instead, the Kingdom and Israel signed a Declaration of Peace and of mutual intentions to normalise their relationship in the future. This is due to the fact that while the Kingdom is governed by a Sunni royalty, the Shiite subjects comprise 70% of the population and, influenced by Shiite Iran, is strongly organised in opposition to this Declaration.

Finally, the three countries signed an agreement on future cooperation.

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Sudan was the next country to be engaged in normalisation. Sudan agreed with Israel to the normalisation of their relations; to end the state of belligerence between their nations and to enter into a peace treaty at a future date.

The case of Sudan is different from the preceding two countries in that Sudan went to war against Israel both in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and in the Six-Day War in 1967. On the other hand, Israel backed the Christian militias that fought the Sudanese government in the first and second Sudanese civil wars. As part of this engagement in normalisation, Sudan agreed to designate Hezbollah as a terrorist organisation.

For its part, the U.S. agreed to remove Sudan from its List of States that sponsor terrorism and in the process restore the country’s sovereign immunity. Washington further promised to engage its international partners to reduce Sudan’s debt burdens which are estimated to exceed $60 billion, including advancing discussions on debt forgiveness. Finally, the U.S along with Israel further agreed to improve Sudan’s “food security” with Israel shipping immediately $5million worth of wheat.

Further, Israel and Sudan will hold talks to negotiate cooperation agreements in the fields of agriculture, agricultural technology, aviation and migration issues.

Given the transitional nature of the present system of governance in Sudan, the proposed treaty must be approved by the Sudanese Parliament that will be elected in 2022. As matters now stand, the country’s largest political party, the Umma Party along with other groups are opposed to make peace with Israel.

President Trump triggered Morocco’s decision to recognise the State of Israel by making an offer which King Mohammed VI could not afford to refuse (Photo: moroccoworldnews.com)

Morocco is the latest Arab country that agreed to establish full diplomatic relations with Israel. The U.S. triggered Morocco’s decision to recognise the State of Israel by making an offer which King Mohammed VI could not afford to refuse; namely, U.S.’s “formal recognition of Moroccan sovereignty over the entire Western Sahara territory and [reaffirmation] of its support for Morocco’s serious, credible and realistic autonomy proposal as the only basis for a just and lasting solution to the dispute over the Western Sahara territory”.

Unlike the heads of the three preceding states, immediately after the announcement of the King’s decision to establish full diplomatic relations with Israel, the King communicated to Mahmoud Abbas his “irrevocable commitment to the Palestinians’ just cause”. 

Yet again, after the first visit of the Israeli-American delegation, the King hastened to send another personal message to Mahmoud Abbas to assure him of his Kingdom’s “irreversible commitment to defend the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people.”

In establishing full diplomatic relations with Israel, the King overruled his Prime Minister who strongly objected to the scheme. The Prime Minister’s objection is not a lone voice in the wilderness but representative of a major segment of the King’s subjects.

On December 24 past, Netanyahu informed the press that he expects many more countries to enter into normalisation agreements with Israel. 

I propose to address the following questions and related matters in the following Parts:

1. What now: more treaties?

2. Do these diplomatic accomplishments help stabilise the politics of the Middle-East?

3. (a) Do all these diplomatic accomplishments place Israel in a more secure position to deal with Iran, Hezbollah and Hamas and the other 13 terror groups operating out of Gaza? 

(b) Could President Trump have taken a different venue to deal with Iran to enhance the security of Israel and the stability of the Middle-East?

4. What now with President Joe Biden at the helm?

5. Where are the Palestinians in all of this?

Doğan D. Akman is an independent researcher and commentator. He holds a B.Sc. in sociology, an M.A. in sociology/criminology and an LL.B in law. He held academic appointments in sociology, criminology and social policy; served as a Judge of the Provincial Court of Newfoundland and Labrador, and occupied the positions of Crown Counsel in criminal prosecutions and in civil litigation at the Federal Department of Justice. His academic work is published in peer-reviewed professional journals, while his opinion pieces and other writings are to be found in various publications and in blogs.  

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Thank you for choosing TheJ.Ca as your source for Canadian Jewish News.

We do news differently!

Our positioning as a Zionist News Media platform sets us apart from the rest. While other Canadian Jewish media are advocating increasingly biased progressive political and social agendas, TheJ.Ca is providing more and more readers with a welcome alternative and an ideological home.

We revealed the incursion of anti-Israel progressive elements such as IfNotNow into our communities. We have exposed the distorted hateful agenda of the “progressive” left political radicals who brought Linda Sarsour to our cities, and we were first to report on many disturbing incidents of Nazi-based hate towards Jews across Canada.

But we can’t do it alone. We need your HELP!

Our ability to thrive and grow in 2020 and beyond depends on the generosity of committed readers and supporters like you.

Monthly support is a great way to help us sustain our operations. We greatly appreciate any contributions you can make to support Jewish Journalism.

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Happy reading!

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